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Introduction to Psychology The books on open.lib.umn.edu will migrate to a new server on October 8, 2018. All book content will remain the same, but the appearance of the books Statistics Homework Help Online, Statistics Assignment change to a new, upgraded design. 7.2 Changing Behavior Through Reinforcement and Punishment: Operant Conditioning. Outline the principles of operant conditioning. Explain how learning can be shaped through the use of reinforcement schedules and secondary reinforcers. In classical conditioning the organism learns to associate new stimuli with natural, biological responses such as salivation or fear. The organism does not learn something new but rather begins to perform in an existing behavior in the presence of a new signal. Operant conditioningon the other hand, is learning that occurs based on the consequences of behavior and can involve the learning of new actions. Operant conditioning occurs when a dog rolls over on command because it has been praised for doing so in the past, when a schoolroom bully threatens his classmates because doing so allows him to get his way, and when a child gets good grades because her parents threaten to punish her if she doesn’t. In operant conditioning the organism learns from the consequences of its own actions. How Reinforcement and Punishment Influence Behavior: The Research of Thorndike and Skinner. Psychologist Edward L. Thorndike (1874–1949) was the first scientist to systematically study operant conditioning. In his research Thorndike (1898) observed cats who had been placed in a “puzzle box” from which they tried to escape (Note 7.21 “Video Clip: Thorndike’s Puzzle Box”). At first the cats scratched, bit, and swatted haphazardly, without any idea of how to get out. But eventually, Looking for case study examples? Call us now! accidentally, they pressed the lever that opened the door and exited to their prize, a scrap of fish. The next time the cat was constrained within the box it attempted fewer of the ineffective how to write a passage based essay before carrying out the successful escape, and after several trials the cat learned to almost immediately make the correct response. Observing these changes in the cats’ behavior led Thorndike to develop his law of effectthe principle that responses that create a typically pleasant outcome college admission essay services a particular situation are more likely to occur again in a similar situation, whereas responses that produce a typically unpleasant outcome are less likely to occur again in the situation (Thorndike, 1911). The essence of the law of effect is that successful responses, because they are pleasurable, are “stamped in” by experience and thus occur more frequently. Unsuccessful responses, which produce unpleasant experiences, are Looking for case study examples? Call us now! out” and subsequently occur less frequently. When Thorndike placed his cats in a puzzle box, accomplishments to put on a resume with no experience found that they learned to engage in the important escape behavior faster after each trial. Thorndike described the learning that follows reinforcement in terms of the law of effect. The developing strategic management and leadership skills assignment pdf behavioral psychologist B. F. Skinner (1904–1990) expanded on Thorndike’s ideas to develop a more complete set of principles to explain operant conditioning. Skinner created specially designed environments known as Direct and Inverse variation Need to know how to solve chambers (usually called Skinner boxes ) to systemically study learning. A Skinner box (operant chamber) is a structure Live homework help california - tangubcity.gov.ph is big enough to fit a rodent or bird and that contains a bar or key that the organism can press or peck to release food or water. It also contains a device to record the animal’s responses . The most basic of Skinner’s experiments was quite similar to Thorndike’s research with cats. A rat placed in the chamber reacted as one might expect, scurrying about the box and sniffing and clawing at the floor and walls. Eventually the rat chanced upon a How to prepare a research proposal - Durham University, which it pressed to release pellets of food. The next time around, the rat took a little less time to press the lever, and on successive trials, the time it took to press the lever became shorter and shorter. Soon the rat was pressing the lever as fast as it could eat the food that appeared. As predicted by the law of effect, the rat had learned to repeat the action that brought about the food and cease the actions that did not. Skinner studied, in detail, how animals changed their behavior through reinforcement and punishment, and he developed terms that explained the processes of operant learning (Table 7.1 “How Positive and Negative Reinforcement and Punishment Influence Behavior”). Skinner used the term reinforcer to refer to any event that strengthens or increases the likelihood of a behavior and the term punisher to refer to any event that weakens or decreases the likelihood of a behavior. And he used the terms positive and negative to refer to whether Looking for case study examples? Call us now! reinforcement was presented or removed, respectively. Thus positive reinforcement strengthens a response by presenting something pleasant after the response and negative reinforcement strengthens a response by reducing or removing something unpleasant. For example, giving a child praise for completing Looking for case study examples? Call us now! homework represents positive reinforcement, whereas taking aspirin to reduced the pain of a headache represents negative reinforcement. In both cases, the reinforcement makes it more likely that behavior will occur again in the future. Figure 7.6 Rat in a Skinner Box. B. F. Skinner used a Skinner box to study operant learning. The box contains a bar or key that the organism can press to Research & Essay: Custom written papers in the united food and water, how to write mla paper a device Looking for case study examples? Call us now! records the organism’s responses. Andreas1 – Skinner box – CC BY-SA Looking for case study examples? Call us now! 7.1 How Positive and Negative Reinforcement and Punishment Influence Behavior. Reinforcement, either positive Help With Dissertation Writing Obituary – Essay Website negative, works by increasing the likelihood of a behavior. Punishment, on the other hand, refers to any event that weakens or reduces the likelihood of a behavior. Positive punishment weakens a response by presenting something unpleasant after the responsewhereas negative punishment weakens a response by reducing or removing something pleasant. A child who is grounded after fighting with a sibling (positive punishment) or who loses out on the opportunity to go to recess after getting a poor grade (negative punishment) is less likely to repeat these behaviors. Although the distinction between reinforcement (which increases behavior) and punishment (which decreases it) is usually clear, in some cases it is difficult to determine whether a reinforcer is PPT to HTML5 - Convert your PPT to HTML5 for Free Online or negative. On a hot day a cool breeze could be seen as a positive reinforcer (because it brings in cool air) or a negative reinforcer (because it removes hot air). In other cases, reinforcement can be both positive and negative. One may smoke a cigarette both because it brings pleasure (positive reinforcement) and because it eliminates the craving for nicotine (negative reinforcement). It is also important to note that reinforcement and punishment are not simply opposites. The use of positive reinforcement in changing behavior is almost always more effective than using punishment. This is because positive reinforcement makes the person or animal feel better, helping create a positive relationship with the person providing the reinforcement. Types of positive reinforcement that are effective in everyday life include verbal praise Essay Experts Sheppard - buyworkonlineessay.org approval, Looking for case study examples? Call us now! awarding of status or prestige, and direct financial payment. Punishment, on the other hand, is more likely to create only temporary changes in behavior because it is based on coercion and typically creates a negative and adversarial relationship with the person providing the reinforcement. When the person who provides the punishment leaves the situation, the unwanted behavior is likely to return. Perhaps you remember watching a movie or being at a show in which an animal—maybe a dog, a horse, or a dolphin—did some pretty amazing things. The trainer gave a command and the dolphin swam to the bottom of the pool, picked up a Computer Forensics Homework Help - Forensics Homework on its nose, jumped out of the water through a hoop in the air, dived again Nutrition Gov - Official Site the bottom of Looking for case study examples? Call us now! pool, picked up another ring, and then took both of the rings to the trainer at the edge of the pool. The animal was trained to do the trick, and the principles of operant conditioning were used to train it. But these complex behaviors are a far cry from the simple stimulus-response relationships that we have considered thus far. How can reinforcement be used to create complex behaviors such as these? One way to expand the use of operant learning is to modify the schedule on which sharon wilson thesis texas a&m kingsville reinforcement is applied. To this point we have only discussed a continuous reinforcement schedulein which the desired response is reinforced every time it occurs ; whenever the dog rolls Looking for case study examples? Call us now!, for instance, it gets a biscuit. Continuous reinforcement results in relatively fast learning but also Looking for case study examples? Call us now! extinction of the desired behavior once the reinforcer disappears. The problem is that because the organism is used to receiving the reinforcement after every tutor help free, the responder may give up quickly when it doesn’t appear. Most real-world reinforcers are not leibensteins critical minimum effort thesis pdf they Looking for case study examples? Call us now! on a partial (or intermittent) reinforcement schedule — a schedule in which the responses are sometimes reinforced, and sometimes not. In comparison to continuous reinforcement, partial reinforcement schedules lead to slower initial learning, but they also lead to greater resistance to extinction. Because Cheap Paid Paper - buywritefastessay.com reinforcement does not appear after every behavior, it takes longer for the learner to determine that the reward is no longer coming, and thus extinction is slower. The four types of partial reinforcement schedules are summarized in Table 7.2 “Reinforcement Schedules”.